Below you will find some great resources! If you are after some further information check out our blog – we will be updating it fortnightly.

Wondered what causes cavities?


Cavities are caused by specific tiny microbes that live in our mouths. As our teeth erupt, they naturally begin to accumulate communities of bacteria. Depend on what you eat, and specifically, how much sugar you consume, certain microbes can overpopulate and cause cavities. Diets high in sugary foods cause an explosion of bacteria called mutans streptococci. The bacteria use sugar as an energy source. The bacteria generates byproducts in the form of acids, such as lactic acids. Mutans streptococci are resistant to this acid, but unfortunately, our teeth are not.

While each tooth is covered with a layer of enamel, it’s no match for acid. That degrades the armor over time, bleaching away its calcium and minerals. Gradually, acids wear down a pathway for bacteria into the tooth’s secondary layer, called the dentin. Since blood vessels and nerves are enclosed deep within, at this stage the expanding cavity doesn’t hurt. But if the damage extends beyond the dentin, the bacterial invasion progresses, causing excruciating pain as the nerves become exposed. Without treatment, the whole tooth may become infected and require removal. All due to those sugar loving bacteria. The more sugar our food contains, the more our teeth are put at risk.

Sugar isn’t the only cause of cavities – carbohydrates can also be the cause. When exposed to enzymes in the saliva, carbohydrates get broken down into simpler sugars, which attracts bacteria. Today, 92 percent of American adults have had cavities in their teeth. Some people are more susceptible to cavities due to genes, which may cause certain weaknesses, like softer enamel. However, for most, high sugar consumption is to blame. The best way to avoid a cavity is to steer clear of sugar content and practice good dental hygiene to get rid of bacteria.


Bad breath can be a problem. Here you can find out what causes it.


Bad breath is otherwise known as halitosis. The bacteria in your mouth feed off mucus, food remnants and dead tissue cells. In order to absorb nutrients through their cell membranes, they must break down the organic matter into much smaller molecules. For example, they will break down proteins into their component amino acids, and then break those down even further into various compounds. Some of the foul smelling byproducts of these reactions, such as hydrogen sulfide and cadaverine, escape into the air and become bad breath. Americans alone spend $1 billion per year on various breath products.

Fortunately, most bad breath is easily treated. The worst smelling byproducts come from gram-negative bacteria that live in the spaces between gums and teeth and on the back of the tongue. By brushing and flossing our teeth and using anti-bacterial mouthwash at bedtime, gently cleaning the tongue with a plastic scraper, and even just eating a healthy breakfast, we can remove many of these bacteria and their food sources. In some cases, these measures may not be enough, due to dental problems, nasal conditions or rarer ailments such as liver disease and uncontrolled diabetes. Behaviours such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption also have a very recognisable odor. Regardless of smell, the bad smell almost always originates in the mouth, and not the stomach or elsewhere in the body.


Contact JC Dental today for more resources.